The Principles of Product Development Flow Book Notes

  • 1 Feb, 2024

I just finished reading The Principles of Product Development Flow by Donald G. Reinertsen. It’s really giving me some perspective on how to build products.

He introduces the concept of “flow”, an idea with its roots in lean manufacturing but tweaked to fit the product development process.

The book walks through flow-based development, offering smart, practical insights that actually make sense financially and practically.

Below are my notes, use these along with the book because you’re missing out on all of the diagrams. The numbering system is there for reference when I am searching through the book. They are the authors numbers.

Chapter 1 - The Principles of Flow

“The Principles of Flow” is a chapter that critically examines and challenges the conventional paradigms of product development management. The author, with over 30 years of experience in advising product development organizations, asserts that prevailing methods are fundamentally flawed and advocates for a new paradigm based on the concept of flow. This approach draws inspiration from lean manufacturing but is adapted to the unique challenges and variability of product development. The chapter outlines the major flaws in the current orthodoxy and introduces key themes of the proposed flow-based approach.

Key Points

  • Critique of Current Orthodoxy: The chapter argues that traditional product development paradigms are deeply flawed, much like manufacturing was before lean principles were applied.
  • New Paradigm Introduction: A new paradigm, Flow-Based Product Development, is introduced, emphasizing principles like small batches, rapid feedback, and limited work-in-process inventory.
  • Illustration with Phase-Gate Processes: The inefficacy of phase-gate processes in product development is highlighted, revealing the discrepancy between theory and actual practice.
  • Problems with Current Methods: Issues like failure to quantify economics, blindness to queues, overemphasis on efficiency, hostility to variability, and large batch sizes are detailed.
  • Major Themes of Flow-Based Product Development: The book will explore economics, queues, variability, batch size, WIP constraints, cadence, synchronization, flow control, fast feedback, and decentralized control.
  • Importance of Economic Framework: Emphasis on the need for an economic framework to understand and quantify the impact of various product development aspects.
  • Relevance of Different Fields: Insights from lean manufacturing, economics, queueing theory, statistics, the Internet, computer operating system design, control engineering, and maneuver warfare are considered relevant.

Chapter Questions

  1. What are the primary criticisms of traditional product development methods outlined in the chapter?
  2. How does the proposed Flow-Based Product Development paradigm differ from the current orthodoxy?
  3. Why is the phase-gate process considered ineffective in product development according to the author?
  4. Can you list some major problems identified in the current product development methods?
  5. What are the major themes that will be explored in the context of Flow-Based Product Development?
  6. Why is an economic framework considered crucial in understanding product development processes?
  7. How does the author justify the relevance of insights from diverse fields like lean manufacturing and military science in product development?

Chapter 2 - The Economic View

This chapter focuses on understanding product development from an economic perspective. It emphasizes the importance of making decisions based on their overall economic impact rather than solely on proxy objectives like innovation or efficiency. The chapter introduces key principles and frameworks for quantifying the economic impact of product development decisions, highlighting the necessity of viewing these decisions through an economic lens for better profitability and efficiency.

Key Points

  • Economic Perspective in Product Development: Emphasizes the importance of focusing on profits and understanding the quantitative impact of decisions on them.
  • Proxy Objectives and Their Limitations: Discusses how objectives like innovation, quality, and efficiency should be secondary to the economic outcomes.
  • The Principle of Quantified Overall Economics (E1): Decisions should be based on their quantified overall economic impact.
  • Interconnected Variables and their Economic Impacts (E2): Recognizes the complexity of product development decisions that affect multiple variables simultaneously.
  • Project Economic Framework: A tool to quantify the economic impact of decisions by assessing life-cycle profit impact.
  • Principle of Quantified Cost of Delay (E3): Emphasizes quantifying the economic value of cycle time.
  • Economic Value-Added (E4): Value added by an activity is the change in the economic value of the work product.
  • Inactivity Principle (E5): Focuses on reducing work product idle time in queues rather than solely improving activity efficiency.
  • U-Curve Principle (E6): Many optimizations in product development follow a U-curve pattern.
  • Imperfection Principle (E7): Even imperfect decisions can significantly improve decision-making.
  • Small Decisions Principle (E8): Stresses the impact of numerous small decisions over a few big ones.
  • Continuous Economic Trade-offs (E9): Economic choices in product development must be made continuously.
  • First Perishability Principle (E10): The value of decisions diminishes over time, necessitating quick decision-making.
  • Subdivision Principle (E11): Breaking down decisions into components to isolate economically beneficial parts.
  • Early Harvesting Principle (E12): Encourages capturing early and inexpensive opportunities for improvement.
  • First Decision Rule Principle (E13): Utilizes decision rules for effective decentralized economic control.
  • First Market Principle (E14): Decision-makers should feel both the cost and benefit of their choices.
  • Optimum Decision Timing (E15): Each decision has an optimal timing based on its economic impact.
  • Marginal Economics Principle (E16): Focuses on comparing marginal cost and value.
  • Sunk Cost Principle (E17): Avoids considering already spent money in new economic decisions.
  • Buying Information Principle (E18): Values information based on its expected economic impact.
  • Insurance Principle (E19): Parallel development paths should be evaluated based on their economic trade-offs.
  • Newsboy Principle (E20): Accepting high failure rates in product development can be economically rational.
  • Show Me the Money Principle (E21): To influence financial decisions, present arguments in economic terms.

Chapter Questions

  1. How does the economic view differ from focusing solely on proxy objectives in product development?
  2. What is the Principle of Quantified Overall Economics (E1) and why is it important in decision-making?
  3. Explain how the Project Economic Framework helps in making product development decisions.
  4. Why is understanding and quantifying the Cost of Delay (COD) crucial in product development?
  5. How does the Inactivity Principle (E5) shift the focus in product development processes?
  6. Describe the U-Curve Principle (E6) and its significance in optimization decisions.
  7. What is the role of small decisions in product development according to the Small Decisions Principle (E8)?
  8. Explain the concept of Marginal Economics (E16) and provide an example of its application.
  9. How does the Sunk Cost Principle (E17) influence economic decision-making?
  10. Discuss the implications of the Newsboy Principle (E20) in the context of product development.
  11. In what ways can the Show Me the Money Principle (E21) be used to influence managerial decisions?

Chapter 3 - Managing Queues

This chapter delves into queueing theory and its application in product development. It explains how queues, often invisible in product development processes, significantly impact cycle time, costs, and overall efficiency. The chapter presents key principles to better understand and manage queues, highlighting the importance of balancing capacity utilization with queue size to optimize productivity and minimize economic waste.

Key Points

  • Introduction to Queueing Theory: Understanding the basics of queueing theory, originating from Agner Krarup Erlang’s work, is crucial for managing unpredictable work arrival times and durations in product development.
  • Importance of Queues: Queues in product development are often unnoticed but significantly affect economic performance by increasing cycle time, risks, and costs, while reducing quality and efficiency.
  • Invisible Inventory (Q1): Unlike physical manufacturing inventories, product development inventories (queues) are not easily visible or quantifiable but have real impacts.
  • Queueing Waste (Q2): Queues are a major source of economic waste in product development, impacting various factors including cycle time, risk, and cost.
  • Capacity Utilization (Q3): High capacity utilization in product development leads to exponentially larger queues, which in turn increases cycle time and decreases efficiency.
  • High-Queue States (Q4): High-queue states, while less probable, have a significant impact on cycle time and economic damage.
  • Variability Impact (Q5): Variability increases queue sizes linearly, affecting the predictability and efficiency of the development process.
  • Variability Amplification (Q6): High levels of capacity utilization amplify variability, leading to larger and more unpredictable queues.
  • Queueing Structure (Q7): The structure of the queueing system affects its performance, with different configurations (single or multiple servers) impacting the processing time and robustness against failures or blockages.
  • Linked Queues (Q8): Adjacent queues affect each other, where the output of one queue becomes the input for the next, impacting overall flow and efficiency.
  • Queue Size Optimization (Q9): Optimal queue size is a balance between queue cost and capacity cost, requiring careful economic analysis.
  • Queueing Discipline (Q10): The order of processing jobs in a queue affects its economic cost; prioritizing jobs with higher delay costs can reduce overall economic impact.
  • Cumulative Flow Principle (Q11): Cumulative flow diagrams (CFDs) are effective tools for monitoring queues, allowing visualization of arrivals, departures, and queue sizes over time.
  • Little’s Formula (Q12): This formula relates wait time, queue size, and processing rate, offering insights into average queue time based on system throughput.
  • First Queue Size Control Principle (Q13): Controlling queue size rather than capacity utilization offers a more effective way to manage cycle time and process efficiency.
  • Second Queue Size Control Principle (Q14): Monitoring and controlling queue size is more effective than focusing on cycle time, as queues are leading indicators of process performance.
  • Diffusion Principle (Q15): Random processes can lead to queues spinning out of control; these high-queue states can last long and cause significant economic damage.
  • Intervention Principle (Q16): Quick and decisive interventions are necessary to correct high-queue states, as relying on randomness for correction is ineffective.

Chapter Questions

  1. How does queueing theory apply to product development, and why is it important to manage queues in this context?
  2. Explain the concept of “Invisible Inventory” in product development and its impact.
  3. Why is high capacity utilization in product development detrimental to efficiency and cycle time?
  4. Discuss how queue size and cycle time are related and the implications of this relationship for managing product development processes.
  5. What is the significance of the Cumulative Flow Diagram in managing queues, and how can it be used effectively?
  6. Describe Little’s Formula and its application in assessing and managing queues in product development.
  7. Why is controlling queue size more effective than focusing on capacity utilization or cycle time in product development?
  8. How do high-queue states occur, and what strategies can be employed to manage these situations effectively?
  9. In what ways can queueing discipline be used to reduce the economic cost of queues in product development?

Chapter 4 - Exploiting Variability

This chapter challenges the conventional wisdom that variability in product development is inherently negative. It explores the economics of variability, demonstrating that while excessive variability can be detrimental, a certain level of variability is essential for innovation and value creation. The chapter offers a nuanced view, distinguishing between beneficial and harmful variability and providing strategies for managing and exploiting it effectively.

Key Points

  • Economic Role of Variability (V1): Variability is not inherently bad; it’s necessary for innovation and value creation in product development.
  • Asymmetric Payoffs (V2): Variability can be economically beneficial when payoff-functions are asymmetric, creating larger gains in successful outcomes than losses in unsuccessful ones.
  • Optimum Variability (V3): There is an optimal level of variability that maximizes economic returns, balancing the positive and negative impacts.
  • Optimum Failure Rate (V4): A 50% failure rate in testing can be optimal for information generation, balancing the need for new data against the cost of failures.
  • Variability Pooling (V5): Combining multiple sources of variability can actually reduce overall variation and improve predictability.
  • Short-Term Forecasting (V6): Forecasting over shorter horizons reduces the variability in predictions, leading to more accurate and reliable planning.
  • Small Experiments (V7): Breaking down large risks into smaller experiments can reduce overall variability and provide more manageable outcomes.
  • Repetition (V8): Repeating processes leads to reduced variability due to increased familiarity and process optimization.
  • Reuse (V9): Using proven, existing designs or components can significantly reduce variability in outcomes.
  • Negative Covariance (V10): Balancing one source of variability with another that moves in the opposite direction can reduce overall variability.
  • Buffers (V11): Using buffers, such as time or resource reserves, can reduce the impact of variability but may introduce other trade-offs.

Chapter Questions

  1. How does the principle of beneficial variability (V1) challenge the traditional view that all variability in product development is harmful?
  2. Explain the concept of asymmetric payoffs (V2) and its significance in the context of product development.
  3. What is meant by optimum variability (V3), and why is it important to find the right balance?
  4. Discuss how the principle of optimum failure rate (V4) applies to testing and information gathering in product development.
  5. In what ways does variability pooling (V5) help in reducing the overall variability in a project?
  6. How can short-term forecasting (V6) improve the accuracy of predictions in product development?
  7. Explain the benefits of conducting small experiments (V7) as opposed to one large experiment in a development project.
  8. What is the role of repetition (V8) in reducing variability, and how can it be applied in product development?
  9. How can the principle of negative covariance (V10) be used to manage variability effectively?
  10. Discuss the use of buffers (V11) as a strategy for managing variability, including potential downsides of this approach.

Chapter 5 - Reducing Batch Size

This chapter delves into the concept of batch size in product development, emphasizing its critical role in improving process efficiency and overall product quality. The focus is on understanding how reducing batch size can bring about significant improvements in various aspects of product development.

Key Points

  • Batch Size Queueing Principle (B1): Smaller batch sizes lead to reduced cycle times by minimizing queue sizes.
  • Batch Size Variability Principle (B2): Smaller batches lead to reduced variability in workflow and prevent overloading of processes.
  • Batch Size Feedback Principle (B3): Small batch sizes enable faster feedback, crucial for timely identification and correction of errors or misconceptions in product development.
  • Batch Size Risk Principle (B4): Smaller batches reduce the risk by limiting the amount of work potentially affected by unforeseen issues.
  • Batch Size Overhead Principle (B5): Contrary to common beliefs, smaller batches can reduce overhead by simplifying the tracking and management of smaller work units.
  • Batch Size Efficiency Principle (B6): Smaller batches often lead to overall increased efficiency by avoiding the complexities and complications associated with larger batches.
  • Psychology Principle of Batch Size (B7): Smaller batches enhance motivation and urgency, as they provide clearer, more immediate goals and responsibilities.
  • Batch Size Slippage Principle (B8): Large batches tend to lead to exponential increases in cost and schedule overruns.
  • Batch Size Death Spiral Principle (B9): Large batches can create a negative feedback loop, spiraling into unmanageable and inefficient project sizes.
  • Least Common Denominator Principle of Batch Size (B10): In large batches, the entire batch is often constrained by its most problematic element.

Chapter Questions

  1. Explain how reducing batch sizes can directly reduce cycle times in product development (B1).
  2. Discuss the impact of batch size on variability in workflow and process overloads (B2).
  3. How does the feedback mechanism improve with smaller batch sizes in product development processes (B3)?
  4. In what ways does reducing batch size mitigate risk in product development (B4)?
  5. Contradict the belief that smaller batches increase overhead, explaining how they can actually reduce it (B5).
  6. Discuss the relationship between batch size and overall process efficiency (B6).
  7. Describe how smaller batch sizes affect the motivation and urgency of development teams (B7).
  8. Why do larger batch sizes often result in significantly greater project delays and cost overruns (B8)?
  9. Explain the concept of the “Batch Size Death Spiral” and its implications in product development (B9).
  10. How does the “Least Common Denominator Principle” apply to batch size and affect the efficiency of the entire batch (B10)?

Chapter 6 - Applying WIP Constraints

This chapter focuses on the application of Work-In-Progress (WIP) constraints in product development processes, drawing insights from both manufacturing systems like the Toyota Production System and data communication networks like the Internet.

Key Points

  • WIP Constraints: These are limits set on the amount of unfinished work (or inventory) in a process to control cycle time and manage workflow effectively.
  • Economic Logic of WIP Control: WIP constraints help in managing the randomness in product development flows by controlling the size of queues and thereby affecting cycle times.
  • Rate-Matching Principle (W2): WIP constraints align the rate of work input with the rate of output, ensuring smooth and consistent flow.
  • Global vs. Local Constraints (W3, W4): Global constraints manage total WIP in a system, useful for predictable flows. Local constraints manage WIP between specific process stages and are more adaptive to changing conditions.
  • Batch Size Decoupling (W5): This principle allows adjacent processes to operate with different batch sizes by setting ranges for acceptable WIP levels.
  • Demand-Focused Responses (W6-W8): These include blocking new demand, purging low-value projects, and shedding features to manage high WIP levels.
  • Supply-Focused Responses (W9-W13): These involve adding resources to bottlenecks, utilizing part-time resources, employing experts, developing versatile T-shaped resources, and cross-training at adjacent processes.
  • Mix Change Principle (W14): Adjusting the mix of work to manage queue sizes effectively, especially for high variability tasks.
  • Practical WIP Management Strategies (W15-W23): These include monitoring work aging, escalating outliers, using progressive throttling, differentiating service quality, adapting WIP constraints, controlling work expansion, prioritizing critical queues, leveraging small WIP reductions, and making WIP visibly tracked.

Chapter Questions

  1. How do WIP constraints help in managing cycle times and workflow in product development?
  2. Explain the difference between global and local WIP constraints and their respective advantages.
  3. Discuss how WIP constraints can force rate-matching between different stages of a process.
  4. What are the benefits and potential drawbacks of using demand-focused responses like demand blocking and WIP purging?
  5. How do supply-focused strategies, such as employing part-time resources or experts, help in managing high WIP levels?
  6. Describe the Mix Change Principle and its application in controlling WIP effectively.
  7. Explain the concept of Progressive Throttling and how it can lead to smoother transitions in workflow.
  8. Discuss the importance of visually tracking WIP and its impact on managing product development processes.
  9. How does the aging analysis of work in a process contribute to effective WIP management?
  10. What role does adaptive WIP constraints play in responding to capacity changes in a product development system?

Chapter 7 - Controlling Flow Under Uncertainty

In this chapter, the author delves into strategies for managing product development under conditions of uncertainty and variability, drawing parallels from traffic flow, telecommunications, and computer operating systems. The chapter explores concepts such as congestion, cadence, synchronization, sequencing work, and managing a development network, offering 30 principles for optimizing flow in product development processes.

Key Points

  • Congestion and Peak Throughput (F1, F2): Understanding the phenomenon of congestion and its catastrophic effects on system throughput. The aim is to operate systems near their peak throughput point to avoid congestion collapse.
  • Visible Congestion and Pricing (F3, F4): Making congestion visible through forecasting expected flow time and using congestion pricing to modulate demand.
  • Cadence Principles (F5 - F9): Utilizing a regular cadence in processes to limit the accumulation of variance, maintain capacity margin, and ensure predictable waiting times. This also enables small batch sizes and structures frequent meetings.
  • Synchronization (F10 - F13): Coordinating simultaneous events or processes to exploit scale economies, facilitate cross-functional trade-offs, and reduce queues without decreasing capacity utilization.
  • Sequencing Work (F14 - F19): Strategies for prioritizing work based on job duration and delay costs, using methods like shortest job first (SJF), high cost-of-delay first (HDCF), and weighted shortest job first (WSJF). Round-robin scheduling is recommended when task durations are unknown.
  • Local Transparency and Preplanned Flexibility (F27, F28): The importance of making tasks and resources visible at adjacent processes and investing in flexibility to respond quickly to changes and congestion.
  • Development Network Management (F22 - F26): Adopting network-based approaches for product development, including tailored routing, alternate routes, and the principle of late binding.

Chapter Questions

  1. What is congestion in product development and how can it be managed?
  2. Explain the principle of peak throughput and its relevance in avoiding congestion collapse.
  3. How does cadence help in controlling flow under uncertainty, and what are the benefits of a regular cadence?
  4. Discuss the importance of synchronization in product development processes.
  5. What are the strategies for sequencing work in product development, and when should each be applied?
  6. How can the principles of local transparency and preplanned flexibility be effectively implemented in product development?
  7. Describe the concept of a development network and how it differs from traditional linear development processes.
  8. What are the benefits of using alternate routes and the principle of late binding in managing product development?
  9. How does the principle of work matching help in optimizing the allocation of tasks to resources in product development?

Chapter 8 - Using Fast Feedback

This chapter focuses on the role of feedback loops and control systems in product development, drawing from concepts in economics and control systems engineering. It emphasizes the dynamic nature of product development goals and the asymmetric payoff functions, differentiating it from the more static and predictable world of manufacturing. The chapter is structured into five subsections, discussing feedback from an economic perspective, the benefits of fast feedback, control system design, the human factor in control systems, and practical metrics for product development.

Key Points

  • Economic Perspective of Control: Emphasizes the importance of selecting control variables based on their economic influence and efficiency. Principles like Maximum Economic Influence and Efficient Control are introduced.
  • Benefits of Fast Feedback: Fast feedback loops can lower expected losses by quickly truncating unproductive paths and can increase gains by rapidly capitalizing on emerging opportunities.
  • Control System Design: Discusses technical details in control system design, highlighting the distinction between metrics and full control systems, and the significance of agility and small batch sizes in enhancing feedback.
  • Human Factor in Control Systems: Addresses how human behavior affects system behavior, stressing the importance of face-to-face communication, empowerment, and creating urgency through quick feedback.
  • Metrics for Product Development: Suggests metrics aligned with the principles of the book, focusing on Development Inventory Process (DIP) turns, queue and batch size measurement, cadence, capacity utilization, feedback speed, and resource flexibility.

Chapter Questions

  1. How does the economic view of control differ in product development compared to manufacturing?
  2. What are the key benefits of fast feedback in product development processes?
  3. Describe the principles important for designing effective control systems in product development.
  4. How does the human element influence the design and effectiveness of control systems in product development?
  5. What metrics are most useful for managing product development, according to the principles outlined in this chapter?
  6. Explain the Principle of Maximum Economic Influence and its application in product development.
  7. How do small batch sizes and fast feedback loops contribute to efficient learning and decision-making in product development?
  8. Discuss the role of agility in product development and how it affects control system design.
  9. Why is measuring and controlling queues more emphasized over capacity utilization in product development processes?

Chapter 9 - Achieving Decentralized Control

This chapter delves into the concept of decentralized control in product development, drawing lessons from military doctrine, particularly the U.S. Marine Corps. It discusses the balance between centralization and decentralization, emphasizing the need for a blend of both to effectively manage uncertainty and rapidly changing conditions in product development.

Key Points

  • Military Doctrine as a Model: The chapter uses military strategies, especially from the U.S. Marine Corps, to illustrate effective decentralized control. This includes adapting to fluid situations and empowering subordinates to take initiative.
  • Balancing Centralization and Decentralization: It’s highlighted that neither extreme of complete centralization nor total decentralization is ideal. Instead, a blend of both, where centralization is used for large, infrequent problems and decentralization for quick, perishable opportunities, is advocated.
  • Decentralized Control in Practice: Principles like the Scale Principle, Layered Control, and Opportunistic Principle are discussed to demonstrate how decentralized control can be effectively implemented in product development.
  • Military Lessons for Alignment: The chapter emphasizes maintaining alignment without centralized control, using strategies like mission orders, clear roles, and dynamic adjustment of the main effort.
  • Technical Aspects of Decentralization: This includes decentralizing information, accelerating decision-making, measuring response times, and using internal and external markets for decentralization.
  • Human Factors in Decentralized Control: Discusses the importance of initiative, trust, and face-to-face communication in fostering an environment conducive to decentralized control.

Chapter Questions

  1. How does military doctrine, particularly the strategies of the U.S. Marine Corps, apply to decentralized control in product development?
  2. What are the benefits of balancing centralized and decentralized control in a product development context?
  3. Explain the Scale Principle and how it applies to decision-making in product development.
  4. How do military concepts like mission orders and dynamic alignment translate to product development teams?
  5. Discuss the technical requirements necessary to implement effective decentralized control in product development.
  6. What role does trust play in a decentralized control environment and how can it be cultivated within a product development team?
  7. How can the principle of early contact with the problem be applied in product development to mitigate risks?
  8. What are some key differences between the centralized control typically depicted in academic models and the decentralized control practiced in military operations?
  9. Describe how face-to-face communication and the Principle of Regenerative Initiative can enhance decentralized control in product development.
  10. In what situations is it more beneficial to use decentralized control over centralized control in product development, and vice versa?

Introductory Paragraph

In the dynamic and complex world of software product development, traditional paradigms often fall short of addressing the challenges faced by managers and teams. This is where “The Principles of Product Development Flow” by Donald G. Reinertsen comes in as a revolutionary guide, redefining the approach to managing software product development. With over three decades of expertise, Reinertsen critically examines the existing frameworks and introduces the concept of flow, a concept deeply rooted in lean manufacturing yet uniquely tailored to meet the intricacies of product development. This book not only challenges conventional wisdom but also paves the way for a new, more efficient methodology that promises to transform the way product development is perceived and executed. From critiquing current orthodoxies to introducing a new paradigm, the book is an insightful journey through the principles of flow-based product development, offering a fresh perspective that is both economically sound and practically relevant.


“The Principles of Product Development Flow” is an essential read for software product managers due to its groundbreaking approach to addressing the complexities of product development. Reinertsen’s profound insights, drawn from a rich amalgamation of fields like lean manufacturing, economics, and queueing theory, provide a comprehensive framework that is not only innovative but also immensely practical. This book goes beyond traditional methodologies, challenging and equipping managers to think differently about queues, batch sizes, variability, and the economic impact of their decisions. By integrating these principles, managers can optimize productivity, foster innovation, and enhance the economic viability of their projects. In a field where managing uncertainty and rapid change is paramount, this book serves as a pivotal guide, making it an indispensable resource for anyone looking to excel in the realm of software product development.

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